Typography is the design and use of typefaces as a means of communication. It is considered to have begun with Gutenberg and the development of moveable type. But typography has its roots in handwritten letterforms. Typography encompasses everything from calligraphy through digital type and type on Web pages. It also includes type designers who create new letterforms as well as designers and calligraphers who use the letters as part of their designs.
Typography uses typefaces and the whitespace around and through them to create a whole design.
Elements of Typography
Typefaces and Fonts: Typefaces are a family of fonts (such as Helvetica Regular, Helvetica Italic, Helvetica Black, and Helvetica Bold). Fonts are one weight or style within that family (such as Helvetica Bold).
Typeface Classifications: These are sometimes called”font families”. They are large groupings of typefaces based on generic classifications. On Web pages, there are six types:
Typeface Anatomy: Each typeface is made up of different elements that distinguish it from other typefaces. Unless you are going to go into type design, Web designers don’t generally need to know the specifics of typeface anatomy. But if you’re interested, there is a great article on typeface anatomy on the About.com desktop publishing site. The elements you should be aware of are:
• Cap and x-height: This is the height of the capital letters in the typeface and the height of the letter x. It tells you how tall the largest letters will be, and how big most lowercase letters will be.
• Decenders and ascenders: These are the portions of letters that go below and above the x-height line. These typically refer to lowercase letters.
Spacing Around Letters
There are several adjustments that can be made between and around letters that affect typography.
• kerning – space between individual letters
• tracking – space between groups of letters
• leading – space between lines of type
• measure – the length of lines of text
• alignment – placing text to the left, right, centered or justified
• ligatures – letters moved close together so that their anatomies are combined
More Typography Elements
Typography is more than just the typefaces that are used and the whitespace around them. There are also some other things you should keep in mind when creating a good typographic system:
Hyphenation: Hyphenation is the addition of a hyphen (-) at the end of lines to help prevent problems in readability or make justification look better. Most Web designers ignore hyphenation, as it is not something that is handled well automatically by Web browsers.
Rag: The uneven vertical edge of a block of text is called the rag. When paying attention to typography, you should look at your text blocks as a whole to make sure that the rag is not impacting the design. If the rag is too jagged or uneven it can affect the readability of the text block and make it distracting.
Widows and Orphans: A single word at the end of a column is a widow and if it’s at the top of a new column it’s an orphan. Widows and orphans look bad and can be hard to read.
Now to the phrase:
When thing are falling apart they may be falling into place.
It really does help change your mood and relieve stress. It also takes fewer muscles to smile than to frown.
2. Surround yourself with positive energy
When you’re stuck in a negative spiral, talk to people who can put things into perspective and won’t feed your negative thinking.
3. Change the tone of your thoughts from negative to positive.
For example, instead of thinking We are going to have a hard time adjusting to our living situation, replace that with We will face some challenges in our living situation, but we will come up with solutions that we will both be happy with.
4. Remember that no one is perfect and let yourself move forward.
It’s easy to dwell on your mistakes. The only thing you can do now is learn from the mistakes and move forward.
5. List five things that you are grateful for right now.
Being grateful helps appreciate what you already have.